Basic Water Gardening Information



  TO CALCULATE LENGTH OF LINER: take length of desired pond + twice the maximum depth + 2 feet.


  TO CALCULATE WIDTH OF LINER: take width of desired pond + twice the maximum depth + 2 feet.


  EXAMPLE: POND 6’ x 4’ x 18” deep.


6’+36” (3’) +2’=11’ long


4’+36” (3’) +2’= 9’ wide




Filtering needs depend on plant selection and fish population.






choose a pump that will pump half of the pond's gallons per hour.


  EXAMPLE: pond has 100 gallons in it -water pump should pump at least 50 gallons per hour.




  FOR WATER FALLS 3’ AND UNDER -water pump should pump 100 gallons per hour for each 1” width of water flow.


  EXAMPLE: 2” width of water flow - 200 gallon per hour pump needed. 12” width of water flow -1200 gallon per hour pump needed.






  A. Ratio = 1” of fish for every 4-5 gallons of water.


B. Remove chlorine from pond water. Use chlorine buster.


C. Always disinfect pond with DESA FIN before adding new fish.


D. Always float fish in their plastic bag on top of pond water for at least 15 min. to allow their body temperature to adjust.


E. PH factor should be between 6.5 – 8.5. Test kits are available.


F. Do not feed fish more food than they will eat in a 5 min. period. Do not feed fish when water temperature is below 50 degrees.


G. Fish feeding should begin slowly in spring after water temperature is above 50 degrees. They only need 1/10 of the food that they'd eat on a hot summer day.


H. Fish eat mosquito larva so mosquitoes are not a problem.


I. Clean all dead leaves and silt out of bottom of pond every fall. Ice over the pond will cause fish to die if pond isn't cleaned.


J. A hole should be kept in the ice so fish can get oxygen. Don't bang on the ice to make hole. Jarring will injure or kill fish.


K. Pond should be at least 18” deep in order for fish to survive the winter.


  GOLD FISH: Don't grow as fast. Are colorful. Not expensive. Hardy.


KOI FISH: Grow fast. Tame - eat out of your hand. Expensive - take more care. Need plenty of oxygen over the winter. Keep in 2 ' of water and keep ice open.


SNAILS: Black Japanese snail is the best kind. Are hardy. Live bearing young. Don't eat vegetation. Help keep pond clean. 1 per every 2 sq. ft. for established ponds.


TADPOLES: Help keep pond clean. Bullfrog ones is best. Takes 2 or 3 years to turn to frog, other tadpoles turn to frogs in one year. 1 to every 2 sq. ft.


FROGS: Bullfrogs are the best kind. Larger, easier to see. Croak louder.




  ALGAE: Pond turns green. Happens in spring and fall.


  A. 50% of pond should be covered with plant growth such as lily leaves, floating plants, etc. But not more than 70% covered.


B. Not enough submerged oxygenating plants. Put 1 bunch of anacharis plants per every 2 sq. ft. of water.


C. Overpopulation of fish giving off too much waste.


D. Pond water should be recirculated once every 2 hours.




  A. White or greenish bugs on plants. Use SAFER INSECT SOAP SPRAY. Take plant out of water and spray thoroughly. Doesn’t harm the fish.


  B. Water lilies don’t bloom.


1. Raise them to 1’ level in pond to warmer water temperatures. Lower them to deep area later in the season.


  2. Give fertilizer.


3. Need 6 to 10 hours of sun per day.